We just wrapped up a week of anti-bullying activities at my kids’ school. Which made me want to look at what the research really says about what reduces bullying behavior in school. I’ve found the work of a team at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill which highlights the importance of bystanders. They have two papers out related to social networks, bystander behavior, and bullying. The first appeared in the December 2015 issue of the Journal of Youth and Adolescents. In this piece the authors, Evans and Smokowski, detail the importance of bystanders stepping in to support the bullied individual. What they found might not be surprising, but it speaks to an avenue for making a change. Those who were more likely to step in and stand up against bullying behavior were those who had positive relationships with their peers and teachers. In other words, people who feel socially confident – like others have their back – are more likely to step in. Interestingly, self esteem didn’t seem to be related, so it seems you could be someone who doubts yourself generally but does not doubt your relationships, and still step in to end a bullying episode.
The same team published an article in the June 2016 Journal of Child Psychiatry and Human Development arguing that when those positive relationships are absent and, instead, the bystanders tend to have friends who are delinquent or who are accepting of bullying physically or verbally, they are not going to step in. They might, in fact, make the situation worse.
What does this say to me? Well, as a mother, these reports cause me to think that a wise school will invest in friendship building. This is a lot to put on a school. They have a lot of other things they are supposed to do, mandated to do, want to do, and just aren’t funded to do. And, frankly, it’s not easy to play matchmaker and encourage kids to befriend a wide circle of kids. So it’s tough to say, well, take the time to help kids build strong social networks. But, it seems to be essential, if your goal is to counter bullying.
And although these articles do not touch on this aspect, I will go ahead and say it – we do have data about which kids are more likely to be bullied. So again, the wise school would identify those kids and help to build their social network. Likewise, we know which kids are most likely to become bullies – and in any case, that’s an observable quality! So an immediate solution might be to direct those who bully or seem inclined to bully away from befriending like-minded peers.
The schools in our area have completed water tests and have determined that the lead in the water is below the maximum contamination level (MCL), according to news in our local paper. I am not satisfied with these results, personally. The MCL is set at 15 parts per billion (ppb), which seems a tiny amount, in practical terms. However, this month the American Academy of Pediatrics published a policy statement in their journal Pediatrics (1) emphasizing that the healthy amount of lead in drinking water is zero.
We know now, after several decades of tracking the impact of lead exposure and also the impact of efforts to reduce lead exposure, that lead in childhood leads to lifelong and sometimes costly, expensive problems for individuals and for our communities. Lead exposure is tied to numerous lifelong challenges including but not limited to lower intelligence, antisocial behavior, attention deficits, impaired kidney function and, during reproductive years, spontaneous abortions and poorer birth outcomes overall. Reducing lead exposure is something that everyone should be able to get behind, regardless of their political or religious leanings.
That said, we all balk at the costs of addressing lead, despite evidence that dollars spent now reduce might higher expenses later on. And – perhaps more to the point – we can’t make any decisions without good information. There’s a lot more we need to know to make decisions in this instance. What, exactly, are the lead levels for each school, including private schools? What are our city and country drinking water lead levels? Which bottled water companies report their sources and lead level information? What do we need to do to filter our own water successfully?
As a parent, I encourage my children to drink water. It’s healthier for their body, their brain, and their weight than any other beverage. But it’s hard to have faith that the water they drink is safe for them, without the information. As a health and medical writer with training in public health, and as a member of the Association of Health Care Journalists, I am dissatisfied with the reporting locally.
Please take a moment to go to the journal Pediatrics and read this free position statement, which includes all the information you need to get started thinking about lead exposure.
- Prevention of Childhood Lead Toxicity. Pediatrics. July 2016, VOLUME 138 / ISSUE 1. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/138/1/e20161493
Chalk it up to the long snowy cold days we’ve been enduring — or to the research I’ve been doing for a couple of articles about depression — but I wasn’t too surprised to find out that warmth can improve mood. And I thought I’d share it, because I’ve decided to focus as much as I can on the overlap between what we enjoy and what is actually good for us. That’s a lot of overlap by the way, and it includes such lovely treats as long walks in the woods, homemade hot chocolate, and a colorful fruit salad. But for the moment, let’s just talk about warmth.
It turns out that people who are depressed have a disordered body temperature and temperature perception. Their body temperature might be higher than normal, by only a degree and a bit, but they tend to feel cold more often than their peers. Exposure to heat for a period of time appears to reset the system, resulting in relief from depression symptoms. When this is done clinically, the individual sits in an enclosed space in what would usually be unpleasantly high heat, as opposed to sitting bundled up in a blanket by the fire. Although that certainly helps, as does holding a hot mug of cocoa or coffee. You can find the research in the January 2015 issue of Frontiers in Psychology (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=warmth+depression+Raison)
As far as I am concerned, this news explains a current trend: hot yoga. This style of yoga, practiced for an hour or more in a room heated to 108 degrees F, certainly has its devotees. I have to admit that I also enjoy hot yoga, although the vigorous hot yoga has so far proven to be too much for me. But I will grant that one walks out of that hot yoga studio both drenched in sweat and feeling a kind of euphoria that I haven’t had since I used to run in the heat in San Antonio. So perhaps there is something to the research. Now, if you can, go for a long hot sit in a sauna!
I’ve been writing for over 20 years now (!). I continue to be surprised that simplicity is often the best solution to the health problems people face. But simplicity seems difficult. Why is simplicity a challenge? I don’t have an answer, but I do have a theory. I think it’s hard because we actually want complexity. It’s as if the complexity and difficulty of what we have to do will validate the challenge ahead of us.
I’ll give you an example. Allergic asthma can be a very scary situation. There’s nothing simple or easy about not being able to breathe. That said, the answer to some allergic asthma could be as simple as changing your cleaning strategy at home or avoiding the situations that might a be a trigger. Better cleaning might mean using a HEPA vacuum cleaner more regularly, choosing fragrance-free products, or getting rid of any mold and mildew. Check out some ideas in this article I wrote for Everydayhealth: http://www.everydayhealth.com/hs/allergic-asthma-in-adults/allergic-asthma/
Very interesting writing in the August 2015 issue of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease suggests that even a small amount of daily meditation (12 minutes) could bolster cognitive abilities, memory, sleep, and help reduce stress in people who are experiencing cognitive decline. The author goes a bit further and suggests this could prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is profoundly complicated, and it seems that the more researches dig into it, the more its course resembles the very tangled protein plaques that define it.
I will say this about meditation, as I have been practicing it daily now for a while (and off and on since my 20s) – I do believe that a regular practice could improve one’s quality of life mentally, physically, and spiritually, regardless of where your health journey is taking you. Meditation would perhaps be even more beneficial for the caregivers of people who are experiencing cognitive decline. One of my articles about stress management has been picked up by a caregivers website, and I am sharing it here for anyone who needs some ideas during stressful times. (http://www.caregiversamerica.com/company-blog/10-tips-to-help-you-de-stress)
Personally I am working with the meditation approach taught by John Main and others in the WCCM community (www.wccm.org) There are, however, no magic bullets in this approach. The lasting benefits of meditation seem to come through daily practice over an extended period of time – but almost anyone would probably feel a bit more in control and less stressed by taking at least a few minutes to close their eyes, sit, breathe, and let go of the worries and anxieties that roll constantly through the mind!
One of the most challenging aspects of my work is finding people who are living with health conditions and asking them to share their story with the whole world. I am always amazed, and touched, by people’s willingness to do this. I’ve discussed some very difficult subjects with people who are in the trenches. I’ve talked to people about their thoughts of suicide, how their marriages have survived despite serious physical and mental health challenges, and how they feel about the loss of their mobility and independence. We’ve talked openly about conditions that can lead to significant embarrassment and stigma, such as inflammatory bowel disease and severe skin conditions. For these conversations, and all the ones to come, I am very grateful. When I worked in health and medical public relations, we knew that putting a face on a disease or condition would make it real to readers and viewers. There’s always the difficulty when you do this of respecting people’s privacy and being realistic with them about the outcome of the piece. Most people want to share their story because they feel — correctly, I think — that if their story can help just one person feel less alone or make a healthy decision, the sharing is worth it. That’s how we connect as social creatures, learning from one another and supporting each other along the way. Yet even as I believe in that positive aspect of discussing difficult situations, I strive always to honor the stories of the people I write about. Here’s an example, if you are interested, featuring the story of one of the most memorable men I’ve spoken with: http://www.everydayhealth.com/diabetes/suicide-and-diabetes-what-caregivers-should-know.aspx
I love to cook! I do! Even when my little guys are either clinging to me and begging me to do something else, or trying to help me. (On a side note, I love cooking with my kids and it’s wonderful as they grow older to see how much more they can do and to know that they are building a little internal recipe box so they can feed themselves, at least some of the time!) Over the years I’ve come to the conclusion that we’d all be healthier if we knew how to cook. It’s worth learning about food, and cooking, and trying new recipes. But I also get that sometimes it’s tiring to plan, and shop, and prep, and all that. So here’s a handy little guide to cutting down on the tiring part of cooking: http://www.everydayhealth.com/pictures/tip-guide-fatigue-free-healthy-meal-prep/?xid=tw_everydayhealth_sf#01